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沼气净化的三种方法

目前沼气净化的方法有三大类,即化学吸收,物理提纯和生物脱除。

At present, there are three main types of methods for biogas purification, namely chemical absorption, physical purification, and biological removal.

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1、化学吸收。一种化学吸收机理是采用胺、碱,醇等复合溶液吸收剂,利用酸碱中和反应吸收沼气中的CO2、H2S等酸性物质,同时也能吸收NH3等易溶于水、醇的气体。另一种化学吸收机理是采用干化学物质(如Fe2O3) 作为吸收剂吸收杂质气体。化学吸收的吸收剂都可以通过装置的自净系统和再生系统释放出各种杂质和气体得到再生循环使用。

1. Chemical absorption. One chemical absorption mechanism is to use composite solution absorbents such as amines, bases, and alcohols to absorb acidic substances such as CO2 and H2S from biogas through acid-base neutralization reactions, while also absorbing gases such as NH3 that are easily soluble in water and alcohols. Another chemical absorption mechanism is to use dry chemical substances (such as Fe2O3) as absorbents to absorb impurity gases. The absorbent of chemical absorption can release various impurities and gases through the self purification system and regeneration system of the device for regeneration and reuse.

2、物理提纯。通过此机理净化沼气的主要是变压吸附法。利用吸附剂在不同压力条件下对不同气体吸附力不同的原理来分离沼气中的不同组份。沼气中的H2O、CO2、H2S等吸附容量较大的强吸附组分在一定压力下被吸附剂吸附停留在床层中,而较小吸附容量的弱吸附组分N2、CH4?等从床层出口输出,从而实现了对沼气的净化。

2. Physical purification. The main method for purifying biogas through this mechanism is pressure swing adsorption. The principle of using adsorbents with different adsorption capacities for different gases under different pressure conditions to separate different components in biogas. The strong adsorption components such as H2O, CO2, and H2S with larger adsorption capacity in biogas are adsorbed by the adsorbent and remain in the bed under certain pressure, while the weak adsorption components N2 and CH4 with smaller adsorption capacity? By waiting for the output from the bed outlet, the purification of biogas has been achieved.

3、生物脱除。在一定的条件下利用微生物生长繁殖需要沼气中某些杂质气体作为营养物质,从而实现对沼气的净化。

3. Biological removal. Under certain conditions, the growth and reproduction of microorganisms require certain impurity gases in biogas as nutrients, in order to achieve the purification of biogas.

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